IA Tutorial Lesson 1
Why’s Information Architecture So Important?
Information architecture (also known as IA) is the foundation for great Web design. It is the blueprint of the site upon which all other aspects are built – form, function, metaphor, navigation and interface, interaction, and visual design. Initiating the IA process is the first thing you should do when designing a site. This series of articles describes specific methods and processes for developing a site’s information architecture.
信息架構(也被稱為 IA)是一個優秀網站的基礎. 這是網站的藍圖,其它層面的工作都是據此來構建 - 形式,功能,隱喻,引導和界面(#TODO),交互,還有視覺設計. 在設計網站時,第一件要做的事就是開啟一個IA工序. 這一些列文章描述了一些特別的方法和工序來開發一個網站的信息架構.
Clients sometimes view the development of an IA to be impractical, both in terms of the time it takes and the skill needed to do it effectively. But this mentality is slowly changing. A good IA is incredibly effective, and knowing the basics of the IA process can save both time and money in the long run. Also, you don’t need to be an expert to use it to your advantage.
This series will demonstrate how easy and powerful the IA process can be. We’ll present two ends of the design continuum, which can be thought of as either the difference between developing a small and a large site or the difference between having little time and having lots of time to design a site.
Each article presents a portion of a design document. Upon completing this series, you will have the template for a complete IA design document; the record of the decisions made in designing the site. It serves as a road map for the site’s construction. Additions and revisions are made easier by the presence of this document. Oh, yeah – and clients and management love this stuff.
每篇文章展示一個設計文檔的一個部分.完成這系列之後,你將得到一份完整的設計文檔的模板;在設計網站過程中所做的所有決定都又記錄,這些記錄會作為這個網站結構的過程地圖. 這份展示文檔中複習和回顧被設計得更容易. 喔,對了 - 客戶和管理層愛死這些東西了.
Also, just about everyone these days is a proponent of ease-of-use. Well, ease-of-use starts here. It’s practically guaranteed if you have a solid information architecture at the outset.
還有, 只是關於近期所有人都是易用性的支持者.好吧,易用性從這裡開始. 實際上,如果你一開始有個實質的信息架構那這個易用性會更有保證.
Contens - 內容
- Define the Site’s Goals - 網站定位
- Ask Questions - 提問問題
- Filter the Answers - 過濾答案
- Design Document,Site Goals - 設計文檔
Define the Site’s Goals
The first step in the IA process is to define the site’s goals. It sounds obvious, but think of how many horrible sites are out there. Do you think the people who created them really thought about their goals? Maybe members of the marketing department went nuts and built a site without asking anybody how to do it. They just had to have a site because everyone else has one. Or maybe the site was designed by committee. If you don’t know what you’re trying to achieve, why bother building a site?
IA工序的第一步就是為網站定位.這聽上去很簡單, 但試想看又有那麼多糟糕的網站. 你真的認為它們在創建網站的時候真的考慮過網站的定位碼? 也許市場部的人員頭腦發熱並且不諮詢任何人怎麼作就建造網站.他們就是需要一個網站,因為起他人都有. 又或者網站是由委員會設計的.如果你不知道自己想要達到什麼程度, 你怎能不為建造一個網站而煩惱呢?
You want everyone in the company – or at least the most important people – to be involved. But you don’t want everyone making decisions about what should be on the site. In other words, you want everyone to agree on the contents and purpose of the site that you are going to build.
Defining the site’s goals solves all of these problems. It establishes a clear, well-documented idea of what you are about to do, and it ensures that everyone is participating. Group consensus can make or break the project.
為網站定位解決了以上所有的問題. 它建立了清晰,可文檔化的你可能要去實現的想法. 它還保證了每個人都又參與到. 統一意見可以要麼成就項目,要麼毀掉項目.
To get the ball rolling, you need to do two things.First, determine who will be involed in defining the goals. Depending on the basic nature of the site, it’s not hard to figure out who the key players are the people who have to buy in to your ideas. You have to make them feel like they are contributing to the project.Listen to what they say. I’s your job to make sure they are communicating with one another and that no single person controls the process (more on how to deal with that type of person later )
想要敲定方案, 你必須做兩件事. 第一件, 判斷誰能為網站定位. 根據網站的基本性質, 不難找出那些核心人員會認同你的想法.你必須讓他們認為自己正在對項目做出貢獻. 傾聽他們說什麼. 你的工作是要讓成員互相討論並且不讓某一個人控制整個過程.( 隨後會講到如何處理這類人 )
You also need to determine whether you have time to do a formal definition of the goals or whether an informal definition will suffice. A formal definition involves calling meetings with the key players. You have to prepare an agenda and questions. It is fairly time-intensive and much more demanding of your project-management skills. An informal definition involves walking around with a notepad and talking to people one-on-one. You write down their thoughts and ideas, ask for their opinions, and come back to them when you need their approval. The scale of the project and the time that you have are the major factors in deciding whether to use a formal or informal process.
你還需要判斷出你是否有時間為定位作正規的認定,或者是否作足夠使之定位的非正規認定. 一個正規的認定需要核心成員參與.你要準備一個議事日程和一些問題. 這要花費許多事件並且需要許多管理技能.一個正規的認定需要拿着筆記本跟一個接着一個的人談話. 你記下他們的見解和想法, 詢問它們的意見, 然後在需要他們的贊同的時候回訪. 項目的規模和你擁有的時間是你決定是否使用正規還是非正規工序的主要因素.
After determining who will be involved in designing the site, you need to come up with a list of questions. These questions help you determine the site’s mission and purpose by involving everyone in the creative process.
判斷完誰要參與網站的設計後, 你需要準備一組問題. 通過讓每個人都參與到創建的過程中,這些問題能幫組你判斷網站的使命和意圖.
The basic set of questions should include:
What is the mission or purpose of the organization?
This is the most important question you face. Reading the client’s mission statement and business plan will give you a good idea. Get your hands on as much of the client’s literature as you can – you might find some valuable ideas that aren’t explicitly mentioned in the mission statement or business plan. It is also important to note that the client’s mission may change as he or she goes online.
這是你面對的最重要的問題.記錄客戶的使命聲明和商業計劃會給你個好主意. 盡你所能掌握客戶的資料 - 你也許會找到些在使命聲明和商業計劃中沒有明顯提及的有價值的想法. 還有一點非常重要的你要注意的是,客戶的使命也許會跟隨他或者她的上任而改變.
What are the short- and long-term goals of the site?
Every person you talk to will have a different idea about the goals of the site. Many people might not be thinking in the long term; they may have an immediate need to get the site up and running. Looking toward the future will save you a lot of headaches in the long run, because you will be able to accommodate growth and change more effectively.
和你談話的每個人對網站的目標都又不同的看法.許多人應該不會考慮長期目標; 它們應該想要馬上把網站建立和運作起來.長遠考慮會讓你在長期運營中省心不少, 因為那樣你就能很有效的調節增長和變化.
Who are the intended audiences?
Most clients do not even think about their audiences, which is perhaps the number-one mistake made in designing sites. This question often serves as an early wake-up call to your clients.
許多客戶從來沒有考慮過它們的客戶, 這也許是在設計網站中的首要錯誤. 這個問題一般作為對你客戶的授課提醒.
Why will people come to your site?
Are you selling a product? Do you have a unique service? Why will people come to the site the very first time? Will they come back? If the client already has a site, try finding answers to this question there.
你在買產品碼? 你又獨特的服務碼? 人們第一次來你的網站是為什麼? 他們會回來碼? 如果你的客戶已經有一個網站了, 常識在上面找到這些問題.
Try to think of any other questions that will reveal the true purpose of the site. If other people have ideas for questions, consider including those, too.
After compiling the list of questions, ask them of everyone, including yourself. Be sure to write down everything that everyone says, no matter how trivial or mundane. You will refine the responses in the next step.
完成這組問題後, 向每個人提問,包括你自己. 確保記錄下任何人說的任何東西, 無論多麼瑣碎和一般的也要.你會在下個階段精簡這些反饋.
Filter the Answers
At this point, you have either created a nice-looking set of questions and passed them out in a big meeting or spent some time walking around with a clipboard talking to people one-on-one. Either way, you should have a bunch of answers to your questions. Now you need to generate order from this chaos and filter the responses. You need to turn the answers into goals and figure out which goals are the most important.
在這一節, 你不用準備一組漂亮的問題然後在一個大會議上拋出來,也不用花事件拿着筆記板一個接着一個的跟人談話. 總之, 你要又一大捆答案.現在你要為那胡亂的答案建立秩序,並且過濾掉一些回應. 你需要將答案轉變為目標,然後找出哪些目標是最重要的.
First, separate the answers about your intended audiences and save them for later. Rephrase the rest of the questions as goals. Put those into a list. If you have a long list, group the goals into categories.
首先, 分離有關目標客戶的答案並為後續工作保存.重新分析剩下的作為目標的問題.將它們列出來,如果你得到一個很長的列表, 將目標按類別分類.
Take this list back to everyone and have them rank each goal’s importance. If your goals are grouped by categories, have people rank the importance of each category separately. If they have any suggestions for the names of the categories, write those down as well.
拿着列表回到每個人那,然後讓他們為每個目標的重要性進行評級. 如果你的目標已經按類別分類, 讓人們按類別來評級. 如果他們對類別的名字有任何建議, 也將它們寫下來.
Now comes the hard part. After collecting everyone’s rankings, you need to distill them into a master list. Give more weight to the opinions of important people within the company, but use your judgment:Sometimes the Web-savvy mailroom clerk has far better opinions about the Internet than an out-of-touch CEO.
現在回到最難的那部分. 收集完所有人的評級後, 你需要提煉它們並列入重要列. 給與公司中重要人物意見更多的分量, 但是使用你的措辭:有時候, 一線的員工對網絡的理解比沒有接觸過的CEO要好得多.
You now have a clear set of goals. Your site has a purpose! But wait. You still need to have the goals approved before proceeding. Run the list by a few people just to make sure they’re OK with it. Call a meeting if you must. Do whatever you need to do, but make sure the client agrees and signs off on the goals for the site.
現在你得到了一組清晰的目標. 你的網站有一個目標了! 稍等, 在開始前,你還需要讓目標通過審核.讓一些人過目列表以保證他們認為沒有問題. 如果需要,召開一個會議. 做任何你需要做的事情, 但是要確保客戶同意並且簽訂網站的目標.
Design Document – Site Goals – 設計文檔 - 網站的目標
Once you have agreement from everyone involved, document the goals of the site and publish them where everyone in both your client’s organization and your own can see them. If you have time, summarize the list and write a few paragraphs about the goals. A simple summary will do.
一但你得到了每個參與者的認可, 編寫網站的目標文檔並將它們發布到每個人都可以看到的地方, 包括你客戶的企業和你自己.如果你還有事件, 總結列表並寫幾段有關這個目標的文字.一個簡單的總結就可以了.
The list of goals is the basis for your design document, which we mentioned at the outset. After you have published the goals, use them to create the first chapter, called Goals, of your design document.
這組目標都基於你的設計文檔, 我們在最開始的時候提到過的. 在你發布目標之後, 使用它們來創建設計文檔的第一章,叫做目標(Goals).
Example: 1 Goals You have just completed the first lesson:Defining the Site’s Goals. You are ready to move on to tomorrow’s lesson.
例如: 1 目標 你剛完成了第一節課: 定議網站的目標. 你已經可以繼續明天的課程了.